بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Following the collapse of the Semito-Dravidian Indus valley civilization, India was plunged into 2500 years of darkness known as the Vedic Dark Ages from 1500 BC to 1000 AD. Of these, the first millenium from 1500 BC to 500 BC was the darkest, with no written records or any material of any sort surviving. The caste system, introduced by the Aryans, meant that only Brahmans could read and write. The Arab scientist Al-Beruni mentions that, even in the 10th century when he visited India, most of the Brahmans were only memorizers of texts. He amply demonstrated the intellectual stagnation of pre-Islamic India. One may forgive the Aryas for having had such beliefs in 1500 BC. But given the fact that innovative Greeks entered India in the 2nd to 3rd centuries BC, this maintenance of primitive beliefs is narrow-minded. Enlightened Muslims ruled India for 1000 years, yet even now institutes are set up trying to prove that the Vedas are right, ie. that the Earth is flat, that a snake supports the Earth etc. At the present day one can see swamis and pandits clad in unwashed dhotis preaching that eclipses are due to demons eating the sun and moon, an elephant supports the earth so that it does not fall down, etc. This is merely an indication of the fundamentalist mindset of the Hindus (ie. Indo-Aryans).
Arya (Indo-Aryan) texts repeatedly affirm that the Earth is supported by a serpent. The earths are seven in number, like 7 covers one above the other, the upper one is divided into 7 regions [ al-B. i.228 ]. There exists a serpent, Seshakhya, under the 7th lowest Earth, it has 1000 heads, so it feels no pain and bears the earths one above the other [ al-B. i.237 ]. Other texts say that the Earth is supported on a giant tortoise. Still others hold that this tortoise is in turn on top of a giant snake [ Kovoor 158 ]. Some other texts claim the Earth is held by 4 pillars, held by an elephant seated on a big tortoise [ Panda 69 ]. According to Balabhadra, the earth is in the midst of water, the lower part is immersed in water and the part above the water is round like the back of a tortoise [ al-B i.273 ].
The surprising thing is that these texts were composed in the early centuries AD. The enlightened Greeks came to India in the centuries BC, yet there is no indication of any renaissance due to this influence. Some Greek texts were apparently copied into Sanskrit, but no intellectual revolution took place. As far as geography is concerned, India remained in the Vedic Dark Ages right up to the 10th century and the introduction of Islam.
Arya texts of a comparatively late period ( 5 century AD ) still maintain a belief in the fictional Vedic Mt. Meru. It is supposed to be one hundred thousand times higher than Mt. Everest! Regarding this mountain, the Matsya Purana says,
"It [Mt Meru] is golden and shining like fire. The colour of the eastern side is white like the colour of Brahmans, that of the northern side is red like the that of Kshatriyas, the southern is yellow like that of Vaishyas, the western is black like the colour of Sudras. It is 86000 yojana high, and 16000 of these lie in the earth. Each of the 4 sids has 34000 yojanas ... There are beautiful golden houses inhabited by spiritual beings, the Devas, by the singers the Gandharvas and their harlots the Apsaras. Also Asuas, Daityas and Rakshasas are living in it. "
-- [ Matsya Pur. quoted in al-B. i.247 ]
In general, 1 yojana = 8 miles = 32000 yards and 1 kroh = 1/2 yojana [ al-B i.167 ]. Thus Mt. Meru would be 8x86,000 = 704,000 miles high. Mt. Everest, by comparison, is only 29,000 ft., or less than 6 miles, high. Hence Mt. Meru is 100,000 times higher than Mt. Everest !The Kurma Purana has this to say on this topic,
" Earth, composed of seven continents, together with the oceans extends 500,000,000 yojanas across. Holy Jambudvipa lies in the middle of all the continents; in its center is said to be lofty Mt. Meru, bright as gold. Its height is 84,000 yojanas, and it extends 16,000 yojanas below the earth; its width at the top is 32,000 yojanas, and its diameter at the base is 16,000 yojanas."The impossibly high Mt. Meru is held to be the source of really existing rivers in India such as the Sita:
-- [ Kurma Purana, quoted in Classical, p. 52 ]
" Ganga, the heavenly river flowing from the feet of Visnu and inundating the orb of the moon, falls all around the city of Brahma. Falling on the four regions, O twice-born ones, she subdivides into four rivers, namely Sita, Alakananda, Sucaksus and Bhadra. The river Sita flows from the atmosphere east of Mt. Meru and then through the eastern range called Bhadrasva to the sea. And each of the others does likewise: Alakananda to the South enters Bharatavarsa; Sucaksus to the West falls on Ketumala, and Bhadra to the North falls through Uttarakuru..." -- [ Kurma Purana, in Classical, p. 54 ]
The scripture then describes nine different subcontinents, of which one (Bharatavarsa) includes or is the same as India. Eight of the subcontinents are populated by people who live paradisial lives. Their lifespans are 10,000 years apiece or more and their diet consists of sweet foods like bread-fruit and sugarcane. By contrast,
" In Bharatavarsa women and men display diverse colors, worship various gods and perform many different duties. The full length of their lives is said to be a hundred years, O virtuous ones. They consume all kinds of food and live their lives according to virtue or vice... In these eight subcontinents, Kimpurusa and the others, O great sears, there is neither sorrow nor weariness, and no anxiety, hunger, or fear. And the people, healthy, unoppressed, free from all cares, ever youthful, all enjoy themselves in various ways. Only in Bharatavarsa, the wise say, and nowhere else, occur the four Ages: Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali."
-- [ Kurma Purana, in Classical, p. 54 ]
Of these nine [lands], it is in Bharat-varsha only that there are sorrow, weariness, and hunger; the inhabitants of other varshas are exempt from all distress and pain, and there is in them no distinction of yugas. Bharata is the land of works, where men perform actions, winning either a place in Heaven, or release; or, it may be, rebirth in Hell, according to their merit. Bharata is, therefore, the best of Varshas; other varshas are for enjoyment alone. Happy are those who are reborn, even were they gods, as men in Bharat-varsha, for that is the way to the Supreme. [ Coom 396 ]
Some scholars are in the habit of claiming that Aryan scientists arrived at a remarkably accurate view of cosmology. They are either ignorant of the actual state of Indo-Aryan knowledge, or delibarately overlook this material.
Another fantastic figment of these `sages'' imagination was that the universe is pervaded with a sea of alcohol! As per Aryan mythology, Kushdvip is one of the seven large continents or dvips of the universe, and is surrounded by a sea of wine [ Alld Chmbrs 982 ].
" Water filled the world .. creator created the egg of Brahaman, according to some, the egg broke, Brahman cmae forth, and half of the egg became the heacens, the other half the Earth, th bits in between into the rains."Even in the 11th century the Islamic scholar Al-Beruni noticed that this was simply folly. Yet even today there are bigoted pandits who accept these statements as sacred and believe them to be true.
-- [ al-B. i 221]
It is claimed that the ancient Indo-Aryans arrived at an age of the universe remarkably close to what we know today, ie. 4 billion years. In fact, some rishi just invented a very large number which is as far from the truth as the figure given in the Bible, ie. 4000 years. As per this fantastic absurdity, the time that has elapsed of the life of Brahman before our gauge year, ie. the age of the universe, is 26,425,456,204,132 years [ al-B ii 4 ]. This figure of 26 trillion years is approximately 5000 times larger than the standard result of 4 billion years.A whole set of nonsense is propagated in the Vedas and Puranas :
Ayurvedic Medicine is, in the eyes of the common Aryan, a sacred practice and often attracts more credit than practitioners of allopathy. In actual fact, ayurvedic medicine is a host of superstitions:
Cow's urine "gomutra" is prescribed as an ingredient of various plasters and mixtures (sometimes with fermented wine) or alone, as an antidote for obesity, as a purgative; for eliminating vermin from an ulcer; vayu disorders, abdominal dropsy and many other uses. [ Su. 15.35; 44.35 ] [ Ci 1.87; 14.13 ] [ Ray 131 ] Bitumen and cow's urine is taken internally to cure malignant jaundice. [ Utt. 44.29 ] [ Ray 234 ]. Antimony sulfide and cow's urine taken internally is also used to cure malignant jaundice. [ Utt. 44.29 ] [ Ray 234 ]. For the case of sebaceous cysts (large swellings that exude a fatty liquid on bursting), incision folowed by washing with cow's urine is prescribed. Another treatment is the surgical incision and the removal of fat followed by cauterization of the wound [ Ci.18.10-11 ] [ Ray 295 ].
Goat Dung and Urine -
Goat droppings "ajashakrt" are prescribed as an accessory to surgical cauterization and is used for cauterizing diseased skin. In powdered form after drying and compounding with honey and cow's urine it is used as a linctus for jaundice. [ Su 12.3 ] [ Utt.44.19 ] [Ray 130 ] Goat urine "ajamutra" is an ingredient for a paste that restores the natural colour to a cicatrix. [ Ci.I.86 ] [ Ray 130 ]
Elephant Urine -
Elephant urine "gajamutra" is used as an alkaline decoction preparation for a suposed cure to malignant sores. [ Ci.9.16 ] [ Ray 131 ]
Cock Dung and other Birds' Droppings
The dung of a specially fed cock "kukkutapurisha" is prescribed as an igrediant for a plaster used to cure malignant skin diseases [ Ci.9.15 ] [ Ray 132 ] Vulture droppings "grdhrapurisha" is an igredient of a plaster fro bursting of non-boils [ Su.37.9 ] [ Ray 132 ]. A similar use exists for pigeon droppings "karikapurisha" and heron droppings "kapotapurisha" [ Su.37.9 ] [ Ray 132 ].
The hooves of animals are powdered and after burning restore the darkness to a cicatrix; a paste of the pwder obtained by burning is a cure for baldness [ Ray 132 ] Animal horns are used as surgical instruments and the paste is aid to be a cure for baldness. [ Ray 133 ]. Meat-eating was practiced by the Aryans, since medical texts say that meat of various kinds is good [ Ray 110 ff ].
The urine of different animals is recommended for use as purifying and appetizing agents; for cardiac stimulants and many others. Each type of urine has special advantages [ Su.45.201-212 ] [ Ray 36 ].
The disease called "amanushadosha", involving swollen eyes, foaming mouth, shameless conduct, cruelty, extreme bodily strength and a fetid smell, requires a treatment by oblations, religious rites, chanting of mantras. [ Utt.60 ] [ Ray 261 ]Charms and spells, such as those given in the Atharva Veda, the highest ayurvedic authorities state leads to diseases [ Su.24.4-8 ] [ Ray 49 ]. A fabled celestial serpent, divyasarpa, is said to cause death even by sight and breath. Any contact is held to be fatal by the highest ayurvedic medical authorities [ Ka.3.4 ; 4.2-3 ] [ Ray 122 ]
Another myth that arose is concerning
oral conception of Rama
-- [ Kovoor 29]
In Jambudvipa, a tree grows the branches of which extend over a space
of 100 yojana [ al-B i 250 ].
Much confusion resulted from the variety of units used in different countries of India. The eras in use were as follows:
Eras: 400 Yazdajird = 1488 Sri Harsha = 1088 Vikramaditya = 953 Sakakla = 712 Valabha = Gupta -- [alB ii 5-7] According to some, the time divisions are 2 truti = 1 lava, 2 lava = 1 nimesha, while according to others 8 truti = 1 lava, 8 lava =1 nimesha (srudhava) [ al-Bir i 336 ].
Astrology is deeply ingrained in the aryan psyche. Propagatros of Jyotish are mentioned in a verse in Ganatarangini as including Brahma, Surya, Vasishta, Manu, Narada, Vyasa etc [Panda 50].
Reincarnation is an aryan belief, as evidenced by the quote from the Rig Vda: " Unless human beings are born again, they cannot reap the consequences of their past deeds " [ RgV. 10.129.4 ] [ Panda 14 ]
The supreme being having 1000 heads, 1000 eyes and 1000 feet pervades the Earh on all sides and transgresses the Universe [ RgV. 10.90.1]
From his [ Brahman ] mind was born the moon, form his legs the sun, form his mouth the fire and indra, form his breath was born the vayu [ RgV. 10.90.12] [ Panda 13 ]
From his navel came the mountains. From his head, the sky, from his feet the earth. Thus the universe was formed [ Rg Veda 10.90.13 ] [ Panda 13].
According to vedic cosmlogy, man in his present form appeared along with all the species of living beings, no evolution form monkeys [ Panda 18 ]. Anthropomorphism is common in Aryan legend; men are transformed into animals and vice versa.
The fallacious belief in reincarnation is internally contradictory for the population of humans is increasing, so hence the number of souls must be increasing too.Thus, during this period free thought was supressed. Only Brahmins, who currently form 5 % of the pagan population, could read and write.
5. AstrologyAstrology is a part of Arya science. It is used to determine the dates for sacrifice.
" The Vedas should contain within themsleves all the knowledge needed by mankind "
-- [ Swami p. xiii ]
This Swami then goes on to describe 16 mathematical algoritms [ Swami ] which are mathematically sound, and it was possible to derive them from the `Vedic' sutras cited. However, it proved impossibel to trace them back to the Vedas ! They were found to be make-belief, cooked up by the author [ S & T 402 ]. They are not even classical Hindu mathmatics .
" They [the Indians} have 5 SIddhantas:This is eveidently a reference to the Paitamahasiddhanta, which is an Indian adaptation of Greek material preserved now in an incomplete form in the Vishnudharmottarapurana [ Pin ]. Aryabhata derived all his parameters from Greek tables and made no observations that we can know of [ Pin ].
1. Surya-Siddhanta [of the Sun],
2. Vasishta-siddhanta [after one of the stars of the Great Bear]
3. Pulisa-siddhanta, so called from Paulisa, the Greek, from the city of Saintra, which I suppose to be Alexandria, composed by Pulisa.
4. Romaka-siddhanta, so called frm Rum, the Roman Empire, composed by Shrisena.
5. Brahma-siddhanta, [composed near Multan]
The authors of these books draw from one and the same source, the book "Paithamaha", so called from the first father, ie. Brahman."
-- [ al-B. i.153 ]
" Brahmagupta says:`Many of the Siddhantas are Surya, others Indu, Pulisa, Romaka, Vasishta and Yavana.' "Thus out of the Siddhantas mentioned above, three oout of six are Greco-Roman. It is evident that these were introduced into India in the period of the Scytho-Hellenistic kingdoms (the Kushans, Indo-Greeks, Sakas etc.) which were hellenized as evident from their coinage. The Aryans were so barbaric that they did not even have a word for brick [ S&T 373 ], and it is thus only natural to expect that their sciences should be corruptions of the Greek.
-- [ al-B. i.153 ]